Coal has been prepared for million years for the convenience of our lives
Coal is the dark brown combustible rock which was generated while land and water plants accumulated and buried during geographical age were transmuted by heat and pressure. It took long time to form thick and wide coal layer of sediment where the ground was sunk slowly. Supposedly, they were buried under the ground slowly while ground was sunk, sand covered it, and plants flourished over it.
As to the age of generation, more than 1/3 of world´s coal is supposed to be formed during the Paleozoic era((5 to 2 million years ago) in which coal of Europe, North America, and Asia fall under. The rest seems to be formed in the Mesozoic and Cainozoic era. Most of coal is supposed to be formed in the Carboniferous Period of the paleozolic age (at the end of Paleozoic era). Bracken, Sphenophyta, Lepidendrales, and Codeites were major plants which were 20~30m tall.
Coalification starts when withered plants are totally sunk in the water, and air is blocked, so that the plants are no more corroded, and then they get earth pressure and subterranean heat. Although cause of transmutation is yet to be established, they say temperature of several tens to 200°C at thousands of pressure constitutes optimum condition of coalification.
Coal is mainly composed of carbon, with a little hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and inorganic matters. Most of inorganic matters were brought by underground water after sedimentation, with little out of source plants themselves. Molecule of coal is a kind of high molecule making general aromatic ring its monomer. It becomes anthracite or graphite according to the degree of carbonization. Connected to carbon chain, etc., monomer wraps low molecular.
|BC 315||A Greek literature shows that coal was used as a fuel in a smithery.|
|3 – 6 C||A word `coal´ appears in a Chinese literature of 3 Kingdoms Period.|
|9C||Coal was found in Britain well as in German in 10C.|
|12C||Coal was mined and supplied as domestic furl, for which tax was levied in Chinese Sung Dynasty.|
|13C||Coal was commercially mined and used for the first time in New Castle, Britain Henry III permitted mining of coal.|
|1735||Coke was produced and used, instead of charcoal, in iron manufacture inBritain.|
|1769||Demand of coal was increased according to the creation of steam engine by James Watt(Prelude of industrial revolution) William Murdock of Britain produced coal gas.|
|1807||Gas lamp was lighted for the first time in Britain.|
|1856||Method of collecting tar and ammonia from coal gas was found.|
|1858||Barkin succeeded in making synthetic fuel with coal tar in Britain.|
|1906||Fritz Harber found the methodto synthesize ammonia industrially with coal gas in Germany.|
|1913||Bergius created artificial oil according to hydrogen liquid addition of coal in Germany.|
|1923||Methane was synthesized in Germany with carbon monoxide and hydrogen got by gasification of coal.|
|1926||Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was discovered by which oil was synthesized with carbon monoxide and hydrogen.|